Sunday, November 18, 2012

Kamishibai Man by Allen Say

Say, Allen. 2005. Kamishibai Man Book Cover. From http://openlibrary.org/works/OL103902W/Kamishibai_Man


1.      BIBLIOGRAPHY
Say, Allen. 2005. KAMISHIBAI MAN. Boston: Walter Lorraine Books, Houghton Mifflin Books. ISBN 978-0618479542

2.      PLOT SUMMARY
Not so long ago in Japan an old man and his wife, Jiichan (Grandpa) and Baachan (Grandma), lived a quiet life in the countryside. But one day Jiichan decides to take his bicycle into the city like he once did many years ago. He can’t believe how much the city has changed and the noise that permeates the once quiet streets. He pulls into a vacant lot and sets up the Kamishibai box. Clack, clack! He hits together the wooden blocks and begins to tell the story of what it was like to be the beloved neighborhood kamishibai man. He remembers the children that flocked to him, buying sweets and listening to him tell Japanese folktales. But then TV came on the scene and the children were too busy to be interrupted by the kamishibai man. Soon after he stopped going on his rounds. But as Jiichan opens his eyes he realizes that the children who once listened to his stories have returned as grown ups! That night Jiichan asks his wife to make twice as many candies for tomorrow.  

3.      CRITICAL ANALYSIS
This is a bittersweet, nostalgic story that is related in an unhurried manner. The beginning of the book is slower, but the story picks up speed when Jiichan recalls the heydays of kamishibai. The book begins with descriptive narrative text written in third person past tense; however this changes when Jiichan tells the story of his past. Then the text is all dialogue spoken by the old man. The narrative resumes when Jiichan realizes he has had an audience for his story. The realistic illustrations match the tone of the story by becoming livelier and more stylized in the flashback scenes.  

The book contrasts the tranquil rural landscape with the bustling city. These opposite settings emphasis the theme of old versus new, then versus now. Other themes in the book look at aging, progress, change, and the increased pace of life in modern day Japan as compared with slower bygone days.

Although there are children in the story, the old man’s search for his purpose is the focal point. Jiichan and Baachan are quiet and introspective characters and Say draws parallels to the childless old couple in the Japanese folktale, “The Peach Boy.” Compare the opening sentences of the book, “Not so long ago in Japan, in a small house on a hillside, there lived an old man and his wife. Even though they never had children of their own…” to the beginning of the folktale Jiichan tells the children, “Long, long ago, there once lived an old man and his wife who had no children…”

Sounds are often mentioned in the text. For example when Jiichan is happy he hums a tune his mother used to sing to him and he begins his kamishibai story with the “sharp, loud” sound of the wooden blocks (“hyoushigi” in Japanese), “Clack, clack!”

The watercolor illustrations are full of vivid details that bring Japanese culture to life. Say presents both traditional as well as more contemporary images of Japan. For instance, the couple lives in a traditional Japanese house in the country. They wear traditional clothing in their house with the sliding wooden doors, but Jiichan wears contemporary clothes when he travels to the city. Jiichan’s grown up audience wears a variety of clothing, from casual to formal, which highlights the wide range of personalities within the community. Say’s illustrations feature children of all shapes and sizes with an assortment of hairstyles and personalities. In addition, Four Japanese folktales are mentioned in the text and scenes from those stories can be seen on the story cards in the illustrations.

Kamishibai means “paper theatre” or “paper play” in Japanese and this book is clearly Say’s homage to the art form. Not only does the story tell the history of kamishibai, but the rectangular illustrations that accompany Jiichan’s flashback are formatted much like kamishibai story cards. In the forward the author briefly outlines his childhood memories of kamishibai and his goal to be “your ‘paper theater man’ for a day.” An afterward by Japanese folklore scholar, Tara McGowan, concludes the book. The afterward provides information on the creation and development of kamishibai over the years.

4.      REVIEW EXCERPTS
A To Zoo – 7th Edition
ALA Notable Book
Best Books for Children: Preschool-Grade 6 – 9th Edition

Review in KIRKUS REVIEWS: "Say effectively incorporates two illustration styles here—lovely soft watercolors and a more cartoonish style for flashbacks to the heyday of kamishibai. A fascinating window on a bygone art form."


Review in SCHOOL LIBRARY JOURNAL: "Say's distinctive style and facial expressions are especially touching...The power of the story and the importance of the storyteller are felt in this nostalgic piece that makes readers think about “progress.” Those interested in storytelling and theater will be especially impressed with this offering, but it will have broad appeal.
"

Review in BOOKLIST: "The story-within-a-story that emerges reveals why this unique type of performance art has all but disappeared. The quietly dramatic, beautifully evocative tale contains a cliffhanger of its own, and its exquisite art, in the style of Kamishibai picture cards, will attract even the most jaded kid away from the TV to enjoy a good, good book."


Starred review in PUBLISHER'S WEEKLY: "Say's gift is to multiply themes without struggling under their weight. Aging, cultural change, the way humans seem to lose warmth with technological advances—he gestures toward all of these while keeping the lens tightly focused on the kamishibai man."


Review in BULLETIN OF THE CENTER FOR CHILDREN'S BOOKS: "The watercolors shift from their usual rich realism to a more stylized approach, seemingly echoing the pictures traditionally displayed for kamishibai, when slipping into flashback, which cleverly gives a greater taste of the tradition while indicating the time difference."


CONNECTIONS
*Read some of the Japanese folktales featured in the book:
Goodman, Robert B. & Spicer, Robert A. 1994. ISSUNBOSHI. Ill. George Suyeoka. ISBN 978-0896102781
Higgins, Nadia. 2012. ISSUN BOSHI (ONE-INCH BOY): A JAPANESE FOLKTALE. Ill. J. T. Morrow. ISBN 978-1609731397
Sakade, Florence. 2008. PEACH BOY AND OTHER JAPANESE STORIES. Ill. Yoshisuke Kurosaki. ISBN 978-4805309964
Suyeoka, George. 1972. MOMOTARO: PEACH BOY. ISBN 978-0834830042

*Use the following discussion questions after reading a version of THE LITTLE INCH BOY and THE PEACH BOY.
-How is the boy who cannot afford to buy candy like the little inch boy?
-THE KAMISHIBAI MAN begins very much like the folktale, “The Peach Boy.” How are Jiichan and Baachan like the couple in the folktale?

*Have kids create their own kamishibai stories, which can be as short as three cards or as long as sixteen cards. This can be done alone or in groups of two or three. Choose to make cards for a Japanese folktale, a familiar folktale, or on a subject the group has been studying recently. Have kids write the text of their story of the back of the cards. Encourage kids to perform their stories for their peers. This promotes oral fluency. Teacher and librarian Julie Rosenoff provides an example of an assignment sheet, as well as helpful tips on planning and creating your kamishibai cards: http://www.cvsd.org/progress/documents/PDF_files/kamishibai.pdf

*Kamishibai for Kids provides information on the history of Kamishbai, as well as techniques for using Kamishibai in an educational setting: http://www.kamishibai.com/index.html

*Other picture books by Allen Say:
Say, Allen. 1982. THE BICYCLE MAN. ISBN 978-0685057049
Say, Allen. 1993. GRANDFATHER’S JOURNEY. ISBN 978-0395570357
Say, Allen. 1996. EMMA’S RUG. ISBN 978-0395742945
Say, Allen. 1999. TEA WITH MILK. ISBN 978-0395904954
Say, Allen. 2003. THE SIGN PAINTER. ISBN 978-0395979747
Say, Allen. 2010. THE BOY IN THE GARDEN. ISBN 978-0547214108

The Year of the Dog by Grace Lin

Lin, Grace. 2006. The Year of the Dog Book Cover. Book cover designed by  Sano Fujii. From http://openlibrary.org/works/OL1913874W/The_year_of_the_dog


1.      BIBLIOGRAPHY
Lin, Grace. 2006. THE YEAR OF THE DOG. New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0316060004

2.      PLOT SUMMARY
Young Chinese/Taiwanese-American, Pacy is excited to usher in a new year on Chinese New Year: The Year of the Dog. Her family tells her it’s a good year to “find yourself,” but Pacy is nervous; what if she can’t find herself in time? Luckily for Pacy, a lot can happen in just one year. She makes a new best friend, learns more about Chinese/Taiwanese-American culture, makes her stage debut in the school play, enters the science fair, and writes and illustrates her first book. When Chinese New Year arrives Pacy decides that the Year of the Dog had been a great year.

3.      CRITICAL ANALYSIS
This semi-autobiographical book covers one year in Pacy’s life and is divided into twenty-nine very short chapters. Many of the chapters contain stories about Pacy’s relatives told by Pacy’s mother. These stories are also short and are printed in italtics. Lin’s simple and cheerful black and white illustrations are used as chapter headings and also incorporated into the text. The illustrations are presented as though Pacy has drawn them and they depict important people and things in her life, from the electric rice cooker to pictures of her friends. Illustrations and text have a humorous undertone that keeps even serious subjects from slowing the momentum of the story.

Through the episodic chapters Pacy not only discovers her talent, writing and illustrating books, but she also discovers her wonderful, if contradictory, Chinese/Taiwanese-American culture. Lin addresses Pacy’s dual cultures in a way that insider children will identify with and outsider children will understand. For instance, after being teased for being a “Twinkie” Pacy complains to her mother, “It’s not fair. To Americans, I’m too Chinese, and to Chinese people, I’m too American. So which one am I supposed to be?” (p. 105).

Pacy’s struggle to understand her culture is emphasized by the lack of other Asian-Americans in the all-White upstate New York community. Pacy, known as Grace at school, is the only Asian-American in her class until Melody Ling, who is also Chinese-American arrives and the two quickly become best friends. This is illustrated when Pacy’s good friend Becky tells her matter-of-factly that she cannot play Dorothy in the school play of The Wizard of Oz because Dorothy is not Chinese. Pacy is shocked, “Suddenly, the world went silent. Like a melting icicle, my dream of being Dorothy fell and shattered on the ground. I felt like a dirty puddle after the rain…Becky was right. Dorothy wasn’t Chinese. I was SO dumb” (p. 70).

Chinese-American holidays and traditions, as well as the foods eaten at these times, are the most prevalent cultural markers. The importance of food in Chinese/Taiwanese-American culture is emphasized. For instance, when Pacy visits her family for her cousin Albert’s Red Egg Party she is confused because people keep asking her, “Ja-ba, bei?” Pacy knows this means “Have you eaten yet?” in Taiwanese, but she can’t understand why they ask her this while she’s eating. Finally, her mother explains that it’s also a saying that means, “How are you doing?” and Uncle Leo says, “It’s because food is so important to us…Everything is about food” (p. 40-42).

Lin confronts Chinese-American stereotypes throughout the story. For instance, when Pacy is trying to decide on a topic for her book she visits the library to see if there are any Chinese people in the books. The only book she finds is The Five Chinese Brothers by Claire Hutchet Bishop. She looks at the pictures and says to Melody, “Those aren’t real Chinese people, though…Your brother doesn’t have a ponytail” (p. 71).

Although the story focuses on an Asian-American family Pacy’s worries are universal and include being different from her classmates, whether a boy likes her or not, and stage fright. Other themes in this book include friendship, family, and taking pride in your cultural heritage. These topics are handled in a realistic manner with lots of humor and love.  

The book concludes with an author’s note that includes information on the autobiographical aspects of the story. Lin notes that her favorite books growing up were about “normal families without unicorns or fairy princesses.” She saw her life friends and neighborhood reflected in those books, but no Chinese-Americans, so she wrote this book to fill that gap.

4.      REVIEW EXCERPTS
Best Books For Children: Preschool-Grade 6 – 9th Edition
Booklist Editors Choice 2006
Bulletin Of The Center For Children's Books-Recommended Titles

Review in PUBLISHER'S WEEKLY: "Lin creates an endearing protagonist, realistically dealing with universal emotions and situations…The book's inviting design suggests a journal, and features childlike spot illustrations and a typeface with a hand-lettered quality. Girls everywhere, but especially those in the Asian-American community, will find much to embrace here."

Review in BOOKLIST: "Most of the chapters are bolstered by anecdotes from Grace's parents, which connect Grace (and the reader) to her Taiwanese heritage. Lin does a remarkable job capturing the soul and the spirit of books like those of Hayward or Maud Hart Lovelace, reimagining them through the lens of her own story, and transforming their special qualities into something new for today's young readers."

Review in KIRKUS REVIEWS: "Elementary school readers will enjoy the familiar details of school life and the less familiar but deliciously described Chinese holiday meals…This comfortable first-person story will be a treat for Asian-American girls looking to see themselves in their reading, but also for any reader who enjoys stories of friendship and family life."

Review in HORN BOOK: "With a light touch, Lin offers both authentic Taiwanese-American and universal childhood experiences, told from a genuine child perspective. The story, interwoven with several family anecdotes, is entertaining and often illuminating. Appealing, childlike decorative line drawings add a delightful flavor to a gentle tale full of humor."

5.      CONNECTIONS
*Readers may notice that the book Pacy writes in THE YEAR OF THE DOG is based on a picture book by Lin. Read the picture book and discuss different types of vegetables eaten in different countries. Bring in photographs of these vegetables or if possible bring in the real foods for the kids to taste.
Lin, Grace. 2001. THE UGLY VEGETABLES. ISBN 978-0606226288

*Picture books written and/or illustrated by Grace Lin that celebrate Chinese-American culture:
Lin, Grace. 2001. DIM SUM FOR EVERYONE! ISBN 978-0375810824
Tucker, Kathy. 2003. THE SEVEN CHINESE SISTERS. ISBN 978-0807573105
Lin, Grace. 2004. KITE FLYING. ISBN 9780756947897
Lin, Grace. 2006. FORTUNE COOKIE FORTUNES. ISBN 978-0756977672
Lin, Grace. 2008. BRINGING IN THE NEW YEAR. ISBN 978-0375937453
Lin, Grace. 2010. THANKING THE MOON: CELEBRATING THE MID-AUTUMN MOON FESTIVAL. ISBN 978-0375961014

*Other middle grade books by Grace Lin:
Lin, Grace. 2009. WHERE THE MOUNTAIN MEETS THE MOON. ISBN 978-0316114271
Lin, Grace. 2012. STARRY RIVER OF THE SKY. ISBN 978-0316125956

*More books about Pacy and her family:
Lin, Grace. 2009. THE YEAR OF THE RAT. ISBN 978-0316033619
Lin, Grace. 2012. DUMPLING DAYS. ISBN 978-0316125901

*Check out Grace Lin’s website for activity ideas and more insight into the inspiration behind the book. Kids will especially love to see the many photographs of Lin as a young girl: http://www.gracelin.com/content.php?page=book_yeardog

Millicent Min, Girl Genius by Lisa Yee

Yee, Lisa. 2003. Millicent Min, Girl Genius Book Cover. Jacket Photograph by Gary Spector. Book cover designed by  Elizabeth B. Parisi. From http://www.lisayee.com/millicent-min-girl-genius.html
1.      BIBLIOGRAPHY
Yee, Lisa. 2003. MILLICENT MIN, GIRL GENIUS. New York: Arthur A. Levine Books, An Imprint of Scholastic Press. ISBN 0439425190

2.      PLOT SUMMARY
Eleven-year-old Millicent Min takes pride in being a genius, even if other people call her an overachiever and a compulsive perfectionist. Unfortunately, Millie’s genius doesn’t extend to social skills, which is why she does everything she can to hold on to her first ever best friend, Emily Ebers, even if that means keeping her genius status a secret. Millie struggles to balance taking her first community college class, tutoring “Stupid Stanford Wong” through his summer school remedial English course, and the mysterious illness her mother has suddenly developed. What happens when Emily discovers Millie’s secret? Should Millie listen to her beloved grandmother, Maddie? Is it sometimes better to be liked than it is to be right?

3.      CRITICAL ANALYSIS
The book focuses on the theme of friendship. Millie may be an intellectual genius, but she lacks social skills and struggles to interact with her peers, as well as adults. For instance, Millie truly believes that Debbie, a community college student, who is using Millie to do her homework, is her friend. Millie is stunned when Debbie tells her, “Listen, I’m very fond of you, but you’re just a child. You can’t really expect us to be in the same social circle, can you?” (p. 36). Other themes in the book include the value of honesty and wanting to belong.

The Min family is Chinese-American, with an emphasis on American. The family eats American food, does not celebrate Chinese holidays (at least during the course of the summer), and no one in the family, not even Maddie, Millie’s grandmother, speaks Chinese. Maddie reads tea leaves and wants to practice feng shui, however, it seems like she is removed from her Chinese heritage. For instance, Millie calls Maddie by her first name instead of the more respectful and traditional American “Grandma” or the Chinese equivalent, “Ma Ma” (Cantonese) or “Nai Nai” (Mandarin). 

Millie stands out, not because of her cultural heritage, but because of her intellect. Although Millie thinks she is extremely mature and cannot wait to grow up, she worries about the things most eleven-year-olds do, her friends and family. Cultural markers are infrequent and vague. The biggest clue to Millie’s Chinese-American culture is in her last name, not in the way she views or interacts with the world.

The book is set in the suburbs of southern California. The geographic culture of volleyball practice, hanging out at the mall food court, and studying at the library is more integral to the story than Millie’s Asian-American heritage. There are numerous pop culture references, which gives the book a contemporary feel.

The text is written from Millie’s perspective and as the story progresses her voice can be grating at times. Millie’s a know-it-all and it is difficult at times to connect with her overly logical, holier-than-thou attitude. For instance, Millie likes the smell of the linens at Emily’s house and she makes a note to ask Emily’s mom what kind of detergent she uses so that Millie can suggest it to her mom. Millie extols her own virtues saying to herself, “I’m always giving people suggestions on how to improve things. I like to be helpful” (p. 76). Her friends, Emily and Stanford, are much more likable and it is their presence that keeps the book lively and entertaining.

Unfortunately, the conclusion of the book is unsurprising. Even young readers will easily predict that keeping a secret from her best friend will get Millie into trouble, but that some soul-searching and heart-felt apologies will get the friendship back on track.

4.      REVIEW EXCERPTS
Best Books For Children: Preschool-Grade 6 – 8th & 9th Editions

Review in BULLETIN OF THE CENTER FOR CHILDREN'S BOOKS: "The depictions of Millicent's affectionate parents and her loving and eccentric grandmother refreshingly reject stereotypes of both Asian-American families and showboating relatives of gifted children. The "genius" notion may hook readers, but it's the sympathetic depiction of universal trials that will keep them reading."

Review in SCHOOL LIBRARY JOURNAL: "While some readers will have trouble identifying with Millie, her trials and tribulations result in a story that is both funny and heartwarming. A universal truth conveyed is that honesty and acceptance of oneself and of others requires a maturity measured not by IQ but by generosity of spirit." 

Review in PUBLISHER'S WEEKLY: "Millicent's unique personality—a blend of rationality and naïveté—makes for some hilarious moments as the young protagonist interacts with a cast of colorful characters including her athletic, down-to-earth mother, her laid-back father, and her beloved grandmother, who borrows sage advice from the television show, Kung Fu. Yee re-examines the terms "smart" and "dumb," while offering a heartfelt story full of wit."

Review in BOOKLIST: "Millie's pretentious voice grows tiresome after a while, but Yee does an excellent job of showing both Millie's grown-up brain and her decidedly middle-school problems. Even if they can't relate to her mastery of Latin, most kids will readily follow as Millie struggles through a world where she's smarter than everyone but still sometimes clueless."

5.      CONNECTIONS
*After reading the book ask kids what they thought Millie learned over the summer. Did she learn more from books or from people? Invite kids to write about an experience where they learned something from a friend.

*Other middle grade novels about girls who take pride in their intellect: 
L’Engle, Madeleine. 1962. A WRINKLE IN TIME. ISBN 978-0312367541
Kelly, Jacqueline. 2011. THE EVOLUTION OF CALPURNIA TATE. ISBN 978-0312659301
Konigsburg, E. L. 1998. THE VIEW FROM SATURDAY. ISBN 978-0689817212

*Companion books to MILLICENT MIN, GIRL GENIUS:
Yee, Lisa. 2005. STANFORD WONG FLUNKS BIG-TIME. ISBN 978-0439622479
Yee, Lisa. 2007. SO TOTALLY EMILY EBERS. ISBN 978-0439838481
Yee, Lisa. 2011. WARP SPEED. ISBN 978-0545154000

*Other books by Lisa Yee:
Yee, Lisa. 2009. ABSOLUTELY MAYBE. ISBN 978-0439838450

Monday, November 5, 2012

The Great Ball Game: A Muskogee Story by Joseph Bruchac, Illustrated by Susan L. Roth

Bruchac, Joseph. 1994. The Great Ball Game: A Muskogee Story Book Cover. Illustrated by Susan L. Roth.. From http://www.indiebound.org/book/9780803715394


1.      BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bruchac, Joseph. 1994. THE GREAT BALL GAME: A MUSKOGEE STORY. Ill. Susan L. Roth. New York: Dial Books for Young Readers. ISBN 0803715390

2.      PLOT SUMMARY
Based on a Muskogee pourquoi tale, this story explains why birds migrate south in the winter and why bats are nocturnal and considered mammals. The Birds and the Animals disagree over who is better. Is it the Birds because they can fly or is it the Animals because they have teeth? It is decided that the argument should be settled by a ball game. The team that scores the first goal will be allowed to choose the penalty for the losing team. But when the teams are divided up there is one creature that is unsure which team he belongs to, Bat. Should he join the Animals because he has teeth or the Birds because he has wings?  Bat is rejected by the Bird team and so the Animals take pity on him. The game continues into the night, when it becomes so dark it is difficult for everyone to see the ball, everyone except for Bat who is able to swoop down, steal the ball, and fly through the goal. The Animals accepted Bat as one of their own and also allowed him to set the penalty for the Birds. Bat decreed that the Birds must leave this land for half of each year and that the reason Birds fly south each winter and Bat, a mammal despite his wings, comes out at dusk to see if the Animals are playing ball.

3.      CRITICAL ANALYSIS
As cited in the author’s note , this is a porquoi tale based on a version told to Bruchac by Louis Littlecoon Oliver, an Oklahoma Muskogee elder. The note also informs the reader that although versions of this folktale can be found in many Native American cultures, this one is specifically based on the version told by the Muskogee, also known as Creek, Indian Nation who lived in present day Georgia.

The story is set “long ago” in a natural area populated with trees and plants, birds and animals. Beyond the ball game equipment, there are no other signs of humans or civilization of any kind. Themes covered in this story include the concept that “bigger isn’t better,” as well as the value of good sportsmanship.

The text in third person past tense is written in equal parts dialogue and description. Bruchac’s gift for storytelling is evident in his writing style. The text, although succinct and spare, includes movement and suspense. The conflict and tension lies in which team will win the game and this will keep young readers and listeners focused. The ending is satisfying and explains three elements of the natural world – the yearly migration of birds and the nocturnal habits of bats, and their classification as mammals instead of birds.

Roth uses papers from all over the world to create colorful torn paper collages. The torn papers give the illustrations texture and depth. Sadly, Roth’s illustrations can be busy and confusing, such as the illustration that introduces Bat. Bat’s face is not visible, but it is difficult to tell if this is because Bat is flying backward or if it is an artistic choice to render him faceless. Another confusing image occurs after night falls; Roth’s illustrations show the characters in silhouette, making the sticks used for the ball game look like giant wooden spoons.

The color palate covers a wide range, from light pink to forest green, mustard yellow to a variety of browns. Marbled papers add visual spice. However, there are so many colors that the illustrations lack unity. The animals and birds look slightly crazed with vacant eyes. Additionally, the animals have jagged, scary fang-like teeth. Although the visibility of teeth is necessary to the story, readers may find it difficult to connect visually to such crudely depicted characters.

The major cultural marker is the use of stickball to resolve the argument. Not only was this method used by the Muskogee Indian Nation to determine the outcome of disagreement, but stickball and games like it were frequently played. Bruchac outlines the basic rules of stickball, a lacrosse-like game that uses two sticks or rackets per player in the author’s note. He also writes that Lacrosse and stickball games originated from many Native nations in North America.

4.      AWARDS/REVIEW EXCERPTS
A To Zoo 5th-7th Editions
Best Books For Children 6th Edition

Review in HORN BOOK: "The story is enhanced by Roth's artful cut- and torn-paper collages, which include handmade paper as well as paper collected from various parts of the world. Her compositions feature carefully posed birds and animals juxtaposed against brilliantly colored or patterned backgrounds. Bruchac provides a page of detailed and illuminating source notes for his version of the Muskogee story."

Review in SCHOOL LIBRARY JOURNAL: "This porquoi tale is told in clean, spare sentences with the emphasis on action and character. In a foreword, Bruchac briefly discusses ball games in traditional Native American life, including the role of sports in conflict management. He mentions two other written versions of the story, as well as Louis Littlecoon Oliver's, which he cites as his source. Unfortunately, the cut-and-torn paper illustrations are too crudely done to convey character or provide details that would have enriched the book. The helter-skelter compositions distract readers from what is otherwise an entertaining tale."

Review in PUBLISHER'S WEEKLY: "With clear, minimal language, Bruchac…wisely lets the myth carry itself. While the three-dimensional effect of Roth's…textured paper collages is striking and initially intriguing, the illustrations do not much embellish the sparely told story. But in its call for an athletic game to settle a dispute-and thereby avoid fighting-the book handily inverts the Greco-Roman tradition of sport as training for war."

5.      CONNECTIONS
The specific tribe/nation or culture of each tale is noted in parentheses after the citation.

*Compare this book with other folktales of migration:
Arneach, Lloyd. 1992. THE ANIMAL’S BALLGAME: A CHEROKEE STORY FROM THE EASTERN BAND OF THE CHEROKEE NATION. Ill. Lydia Halverson. ISBN 978-0516051390 (Cherokee)
Duvall, Deborah L. 2002. THE GREAT BALL GAME OF THE BIRDS AND ANIMALS. Ill. Murv Jacobs. ISBN 978-0826329134 (Cherokee)

*Learn more about Native American games. If possible, play a few of the games. Check out one of the following books for more information on traditions and rules:
Bruchac, Joseph & James Bruchac. 2000. NATIVE AMERICAN GAMES AND STORIES. Ill. Kayeri Akweks. ISBN 978-1555919795
Miller, Jay. 1997. AMERICAN INDIAN GAMES. ISBN 978-0516260921

*Other fiction picture books about bats:
Berk, Ari. 2012. NIGHTSONG. Ill. by Loren Long. ISBN 978-1416978862
Cannon, Janell. 1993. STELLALUNA.  ISBN 978-0152802172
Davies, Nicola. 2004. BAT LOVES THE NIGHT. Ill. by Sarah Fox-Davies. ISBN 978-0756965617

*Non-Fiction books about bats:
Carson, Mary Kay. 2010. THE BAT SCIENTISTS. Photos by Tom Uhlman. ISBN 978-0-547-19956-6
Gibbons, Gail. 2000. BATS. ISBN 978-0823416370
Pringle, Laurence. 2009. BATS! STRANGE AND WONDERFUL. Ill. Meryl Henderson. ISBN 978-1590787816

*More picture books written by Joseph Bruchac:
Bruchac, Joseph & Jonathan London. 1997. THIRTEEN MOONS ON TURTLE’S BACK. Ill. Thomas Locker. ISBN 978-0698115842 (Abenaki)
Bruchac, Joseph. 1998. A BOY CALLED SLOW. Ill. Rocco Haviera. ISBN 978-0698116160 (Lakota Sioux)
Bruchac, Joseph. 1998. THE EARTH UNDER SKY BEAR’S FEET. Ill. Thomas Locker. ISBN 978-0698116474 (Multiple tribes)
Bruchac, Joseph. 1998. THE FIRST STRAWBERRIES. Ill. Anna Vojtech. ISBN 978-0140564099 (Cherokee)
Bruchac, Joseph. 1999. BETWEEN EARTH & SKY: LEGENDS OF NATIVE AMERICAN SACRED PLACES. Ill. Thomas Locker. ISBN 978-0152020620 (Multiple tribes)
Bruchac, Joseph & James Bruchac. 2003. HOW CHIPMUNK GOT HIS STRIPES. Ill. Jose Aruego & Ariane Dewey. ISBN 978-0142500217 (Multiple tribes)
Bruchac, Joseph & James Bruchac. 2005. TURTLE’S RACE WITH BEAVER. Ill. Jose Aruego & Ariane Dewey. ISBN 978-0142404669 (Seneca)

When Turtle Grew Feathers: A Folktale from the Choctaw Nation by Tim Tingle, Illustrated by Stacey Schuett

Tingle, Tim. 2007. When Turtle Grew Feathers: A Folktale From The Choctaw Nation Book Cover. Illustrated by Stacey Schuett. From http://www.timtingle.com/turtle.html


1.      BIBLIOGRAPHY
Tingle, Tim. 2007. WHEN TURTLE GREW FEATHERS: A FOLKTALE FROM THE CHOCTAW NATION. Ill. Stacey Schuett. Atlanta: August House LittleFolk. ISBN 978-0874837773

2.      PLOT SUMMARY
Most people know the story of the race between the tortoise and the hare, but in this version of the story based on a Choctaw folktale the race plays out a differently. In this trickster tale Rabbit loses the race but not because Turtle is slow and steady, but because Turtle grows feathers. The story begins on the day that Turkey stepped on Turtle and shattered his shell. Luckily, a parade of ants is able to restore the shell. Turtle is so impressed by the work that he offers to let Turkey try the shell on. Just then bold and proud Rabbit hops by and challenges Turkey-in-Turtle’s-shell to a race. From his hiding place in the tall grass the real Turtle shouts, “Get it on!” Rabbit thinks he is the certain winner of the race, but when he hollers, “Go!” he is stunned into a statue as he watches Turtle grow long, skinny legs and feathered wings! Before Rabbit even leaves the starting line Turkey has crossed the finish line.

3.      CRITICAL ANALYSIS
This variant of the traditional Aesop fable focuses on themes of friendship and pride. The plot begins by drawing a connection between this story and the familiar tortoise and hare story. This provides an easy way for readers outside the Choctaw culture to gain access to the story. Although the book does not include an author’s note, sources, including oral interviews, are cited at the end of the book. In addition, Tingle is a member of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma.

The story can be broken up into three sections. First, Turkey breaks Turtle’s shell and the two quarrel. Next, Turkey and Turtle decide it is better to be friends than enemies and Turtle’s shiny shell is fixed. Finally, Rabbit appears and the race brings the story to its conclusion. Although these three distinct parts can be easily identified, it does not detract from the overall plot or the pacing, which is vigorous and upbeat. There is satisfaction in the comeuppance that arrogant and overconfident Rabbit receives at the conclusion of the story.

The text is written in third person past tense, which is appropriate for a folktale. Tingle uses a contemporary style of writing, most notable in Turtle’s response to Rabbit’s challenge to race, “Get it on!” Most, although not all, of the text is rhyming and onomatopoeic sounds are used throughout the story, such as the “Currrr-rack!” when Turkey steps on Turtle’s shell.

Although the text does not mention the specific setting, Schuett’s illustrations depict animals and plants of the Plains, such as grasshoppers, apple trees, and cattails. The acrylic illustrations depict billowing clouds, vast skies, and the brown-green grasslands of the High Plains. Schuett uses a wide variety of facial expressions to great effect, which adds depth to the story. Low to the ground angles are used, which makes the visual perspective that of the animals, rather than a human looking down on the animals.

Some illustrations are framed within patterned borders, although the many of the illustrations seem to spill over the edges of the borders as if the life cannot be contained. The borders are merely decorative; the patterns do not seem to include any Choctaw symbolism.

The book features an all animal cast and therefore there are not many cultural markers present in the text or the illustrations. One phrase of Choctaw is used at the end of the book, “Chata haptia hoke!” This is translated in the text as, “Now the story is yours,” which encourages readers to read the book or tell the story to others.

4.      AWARDS/REVIEW EXCERPTS
A To Zoo - 7th Edition
Best Books For Children: Preschool-Grade 6 - Ninth Edition
Oklahoma Book Award Finalist

Review in KIRKUS REVIEWS: "The bold and colorful illustrations are a good match for this lively telling that, with Rabbit's breezy rap-like dialogue, is a joy to read aloud. Based on a traditional Choctaw story, this telling wins the race. Includes notes on sources. "

Review in SCHOOL LIBRARY JOURNAL: "Variations of the race between the tortoise and the hare crop up regularly, but this version, retold as a trickster tale, stands out for its humor and expressive illustrations…The prose alternates between rhyming and nonrhyming text and for the most part it bounces along without stumbling…Bright cartoon illustrations capture the tale’s humor and energy. Turkey explodes off the page as he emerges from Turtle’s shell, ready to run. The animals’ various emotions are well rendered, including Turtle’s chagrin, Rabbit’s aggression and later humiliation, and the budding friendship between Turtle and Turkey. Use this book as a variation to a common folktale, an introduction to Native American lore, or as a fine read-aloud all on its own."

5.      CONNECTIONS
*Read one of the following versions of Aesop’s fable of the tortoise and the hare before or after reading WHEN TURTLE GREW FEATHERS. Compare and contrast character traits and the outcomes of the race:
Morrison, Toni & Morrison, Slade. 2010. THE TORTOISE OR THE HARE. Ill. Joe Cepeda. ISBN 978-1416983347
Stevens, Janet. 1985. THE TORTOISE AND THE HARE: AN AESOP FABLE. ISBN 978-0823405640
Wildsmith, Brian. 1982. HARE AND THE TORTOISE. ISBN 978-0833507013

*Other stories based on Choctaw folktales (see also other books by Tim Tingle below):
Harrell, Beatrice O. 1995. HOW THUNDER AND LIGHTNING CAME TO BE: A CHOCTAW TALE. Ill. Susan L. Roth. ISBN 978-0803717497

*More children’s books by Tim Tingle:
Tingle, Tim. 2006. CROSSING BOK CHITTO: A CHOCTAW TALE OF FRIENDSHIP AND FREEDOM. Ill. Jeanne Rorex Bridges. ISBN 978-0938317777
Tingle, Tim. 2010. SALTYPIE: A CHOCTAW JOURNEY FROM DARKNESS INTO LIGHT. Ill. Karen Clarkson. ISBN 978-1933693675
Tingle, Tim, & Silva, Michelle. 2010. “Rabbit’s Choctaw Tail Tale.” In TRICKSTER: NATIVE AMERICAN TALES: A GRAPHIC COLLECTION, edited by Matt Dembicki.  ISBN 978-1555917241

The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian by Sherman Alexie, Illustrated by Ellen Forney

Alexie, Sherman. 2007. The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian Book Cover. Illustrated by Ellen Forney. Book cover designed by Kirk Benshoff. From http://www.fallsapart.com/the_absolutely_true_diary_of_a_part_time_indian/


1.      BIBLIOGRAPHY
Alexie, Sherman. 2007. THE ABSOLUTELY TRUE DIARY OF A PART-TIME INDIAN. Ill. by Ellen Forney. New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0316013680

2.      PLOT SUMMARY
Fourteen year old Arnold Spirit, Jr, an aspiring cartoonist, is a Spokane Indian living with his family on the reservation in Eastern Washington State. In a voice that is humorous, vulnerable, and brutally honest Junior tells the story of his life. Born with several medical problems, as well as better-than-average intelligence, Junior knows he’s probably the geekest Indian on “the rez.” Just before he begins his sophomore year, Junior decides that he has to get away from the rez or he’ll lose hope, just as his sister did. That fall Junior goes to high school in Reardan, an all-white, affluent town 22 miles from the rez. Throughout the school year Junior, called Arnold at his new school, feels the pressure of being seen as “half-White” by his fellow tribal members and “half-Indian” by his classmates. In addition, Junior deals with the death of family members, a White girlfriend, playing on the basketball team, an angry and violent best friend, and his father’s alcoholism. Although he is constantly bombarded by traumatic events, Junior ultimately decides to continue to hope, because it without hope all is lost.

3.      CRITICAL ANALYSIS
This coming of age story is written in first person past tense is formatted like a diary format, which allows Junior’s internal thoughts and emotions to be fully displayed and dissected. The book is written in an easy to read style and divided into short chapters, making this an attractive book for older teens who read below grade level.

The events of the story are harshly realistic, such as the deaths of Junior’s family members and his father’s alcoholism. The topics covered in Junior’s essay-like diary entries are not censored or toned down. Junior candidly discusses girls, masturbation, violence, alcoholism, poverty, and death in a teenage vernacular that includes slang, curse words, and profanity.

Alexie does not ease the reader into the story. Instead we are hit with the reality of Junior’s life immediately as he relates the long list of his medical problems. Junior is brutally candid, even emotionally shocking, when writing in his diary. In everyday life he keeps his emotional life guarded, but we are allowed to see his vulnerability in his writing. This becomes apparent very early in the story when Junior writes about his father shooting his beloved dog, Oscar, because the family is too poor to take the sick dog to the vet, “I wanted to run faster than the speed of sound, but nobody, no matter how much pain they’re in, can run that fast. So I heard the boom of my father’s rifle when he shot my best friend. A bullet only costs about two cents, and anybody can afford that” (p. 14).

Forney’s illustrations illuminate Junior’s attitude on his culture and provide humorous, often ironic, commentary to the story. This is all the more effective when the black and white cartoons address serious and traumatic events. The cartoons provide a visual window into Junior’s soul. Junior says it best, “I draw because words are too unpredictable. / I draw because words are too limited. / If you speak and write in English, or Spanish, or Chinese, or any other language, then only a certain percentage of human beings will get your meaning. / But when you draw a picture, everybody can understand it” (p. 5).

“The rez” is an important element and cultural markers are revealed as Junior compares and contrasts his life in Wellpinit and Reardan. The two settings illustrate and magnify Junior’s feeling of being caught between two cultures. Junior struggles to be himself in a world of stereotypes and prejudices. Forney captures this struggle in her cartoon of half-White, half-Indian Junior (p. 57). Other cultural markers in the story include the Spokane Powwow and Junior’s grandmother’s wake.

Throughout the book Junior shines a spotlight on White and Indian stereotypes. He acknowledges them, examines them, and then he shatters them. Junior does not live in a vacuum, he recognizes that at times there is a factual basis for stereotypes, but he shows the reader that stereotypes do not convey the scope of variety within any culture.

The story of Billionaire Ted is an example of how stereotypes are addressed in this book, “We’d expected this white guy to be original. But he was yet another white guy who showed up on the rez because he loved Indian people SOOOOOOOO much” (p. 162). Forney furthers the impact of this story with her satirical cartoon of Ted that is punctuated with humorous, yet insightful comments such as, “Why do these balding guys always have ponytails?”

The themes in this book include hope, love, poverty, stereotypes, and desire to fulfill your potential. Although Junior’s culture is a major element of the story, his basic desires are universal. He wants to be liked, have good friends, a girlfriend, loving and supportive parents, and be praised for his accomplishments.

Throughout the book Junior questions if he should assimilate in order to survive in a White dominant world or if should he hang on to the traditional culture of his family. By the end of the story, Junior realizes that he does not have to choose when culture over the other, but he also knows he has not chosen an easy path to walk. The story is not a happy one, but it ends on a hopeful note as Junior and Rowdy repair their friendship. Readers will want Junior to succeed in his goals, but there is the understanding that he will have to keep fighting long after the book ends.

Overall, I enjoyed the experience of reading this book, the only element I would add to the book would be an author’s note that would give reader’s insight into the autobiographical nature of the story.

4.      AWARDS/REVIEW EXCERPTS
ALA Best Books For Young Adults
Best Books For Boys: A Resource For Educators
Best Books For Middle And Junior High Readers: Grades 6-9 - Second Edition
Best Books For High School Readers: Grades 9-12 - Second Edition
California Young Readers Medal Program Winner

Review in SCHOOL LIBRARY JOURNAL: " Forney's simple pencil cartoons fit perfectly within the story and reflect the burgeoning artist within Junior. Reluctant readers can even skim the pictures and construct their own story based exclusively on Forney's illustrations. The teen's determination to both improve himself and overcome poverty, despite the handicaps of birth, circumstances, and race, delivers a positive message in a low-key manner."

Review in PUBLISHER'S WEEKLY: "Unlike protagonists in many YA novels who reclaim or retain ethnic ties in order to find their true selves, Junior must separate from his tribe in order to preserve his identity. Jazzy syntax and Forney’s witty cartoons examining Indian versus White attire and behavior transmute despair into dark humor; Alexie’s no-holds-barred jokes have the effect of throwing the seriousness of his themes into high relief. "

Review in BOOKLIST: "Alexie’s humor and prose are easygoing and well suited to his young audience, and he doesn’t pull many punches as he levels his eye at stereotypes both warranted and inapt.  A few of the plotlines fade to gray by the end, but this ultimately affirms the incredible power of best friends to hurt and heal in equal measure."

Review in DEMOCRACY AND EDUCATION: "From a literary standpoint, the character of Arnold fills a gap in young adult literature, especially among works with Native American protagonists. Within children's and young adult literature, there are far too few representations of contemporary Native American people that stretch readers' conceptions of what it means to exist in the spaces within and between' tradition and modernity. "

Review in BULLETIN FOR THE CENTER FOR CHILDREN'S BOOKS: "The grief in this narrative is enough to leave a reader gasping, with both the humor and the hope always deepened by sadness and the ever-present niggling of undeserved and impotent guilt. Nevertheless, what emerges most strongly is Junior's uncompromising determination to press on while leaving nothing important behind."

5.      CONNECTIONS
*In the book, Junior writes that he belongs to the Spokane Indian tribe, but also to a lot of other tribes from the tribe of cartoonists to the tribe of Pacific Northwesters (p. 217). Ask teens if they would add anymore tribes to Juniors list. Ask them to make a list of the tribes they belong to themselves. Does being a part of one tribe mean you can’t be apart of another?

*Other books by Sherman Alexie:
Alexie, Sherman. 1994. THE LONE RANGER AND TONTO FISTFIGHT IN HEAVEN. ISBN 978-0436201905
Alexie, Sherman. 2010. WAR DANCES. ISBN 978-0802144898

*Other YA books that feature protagonists who are conflicted by the tensions between two cultures:
Desai Hidier, Tanuja. 2003. BORN CONFUSED. ISBN 978-0439510110
Headley, Justina Chen. 2006. NOTHING BUT THE TRUTH (AND A FEW WHITE LIES). ISBN 978-0316011280
Yang, Gene Luen. 2008. AMERICAN BORN CHINESE. ISBN 978-0312384487

*This book is described as semi-autobiographical. Encourage teens to read more about Sherman Alexie’s life to find out what parts of the story were true and what parts were fabricated. Helpful resources include:

Alexie’s official website: http://www.fallsapart.com
Krupat, Arnold, & Swann, Brian (eds). 2000. HERE FIRST: AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL ESSAYS BY NATIVE AMERICAN WRITERS. ISBN 978-0375751387
Peterson, Nancy J. 2009. CONVERSATIONS WITH SHERMAN ALEXIE. ISBN 978-1604732795