Saturday, October 20, 2012

Marcelo in the Real World Book Trailer



This is a book trailer for MARCELO IN THE REAL WORLD by Francisco X. Stork. It was created for an assignment for a graduate course on multicultural literature for children and young adults at Texas Woman's University. Many thanks to my brother, Andy Musser, for providing narration and my mother, Flo Musser, for her crystal clear performance of C. P. E. Bach's Solfeggietto.


Monday, October 15, 2012

How Tía Lola Came to Visit Stay by Julia Alvarez

Alvarez, Julia. 2001. How Tía Lola Came to Visit Stay Book Cover. Book cover illustration by Tatsuro Kiuchi. From http://www.tialolastories.com/


1.      BIBLIOGRAPHY
Alvarez, Julia. 2001. HOW TÍA LOLA CAME TO VISIT STAY. New York: Dell Yearling. ISBN 0440418704


2.      PLOT SUMMARY
The year Miguel turns ten is full of change. His parents separate, which means Miguel must move with his mother and younger sister, Juanita to a small town in Vermont. In addition to missing his father and friends in New York City, Miguel’s vibrant Tía Lola comes to visit from the Dominican Republic. Although Miguel is initially embarrassed by his aunt’s outgoing personality, by the end of the year he learns to appreciate Tía Lola unique ability to enchant everyone she meets.

3.      CRITICAL ANALYSIS
The book is divided into ten episodic chapters that read like short stories. Time passes quickly as the story charts one calendar year, from January to December, in Miguel’s life. Life lessons mixed with laughter as a year of birthdays, visits to New York City, baseball games, and family dinners passes by.

Alvarez has created strong characters that grow as the story progresses. The most notable, of course, is colorful and vibrant Tía Lola. She is a larger-than-life, almost magical character. It is heartwarming to watch Miguel’s relationship with his aunt change from one of embarrassment to pride, love, and appreciation. Another influential character is Miguel’s father. Even though he only appears in a few chapters, it is clear that Miguel admires his father very much and struggles with being separated from his beloved Papi.

Although Tía Lola is the title character, the story really belongs to Miguel. But even though the book features a male protagonist, boys and girls alike will identify with Miguel’s desire to fit in with his peers and to be noticed for his talents and accomplishments. Through Miguel’s story readers will learn about Dominican Republic culture, but universal themes are the focal point of the book. These include: divorce, sibling rivalry, change, being the new kid, and friendship.

The New England small town setting is very important to the story. Alvarez contrasts the quiet Vermont farm with the hustle and bustle of Miguel’s former home in New York City. Additionally, juxtaposing Tía Lola’s Dominican Republic bold culture with the sedate Vermont community provides a noticeable distinction. Miguel comes to understand that his aunt must adapt to her new surroundings just as he is doing.

Although Spanish words are used, the writing style and reading level make this book suitable for children 8-12. Spanish words are printed in italics for easy identification. This is especially helpful for young readers who are still sounding out words and increasing their vocabulary.

An author’s note at the end of the book explains that the Spanish used in the book is Caribbean Spanish and that Alvarez has tried to define all words and phrases within the context of the story. In addition to teaching the literal definitions of Spanish words, Alvarez provides insight into the cultural implications of terms. For instance, the title of the last chapter is La Ñapa, which Tía Lola explains is “the little bit more that comes at the end” (p. 131).

For the most part Spanish terms are incorporated seamlessly into the story, although there are a few instances where Alvarez’s tone becomes didactic. This is most evident when Tía Lola tries to teach Juanita and Miguel about the use of genders in the Spanish language, “In Spanish, words have to be masculine or feminine. She [Tía Lola] doesn’t know exactly why that is. The male words usually end in o, and the female words in a” (p. 65).

4.      REVIEW EXCERPTS
Review in KIRKUS REVIEWS: “Peppered with Spanish words and phrases, Alvarez makes the reader as much a part of the ‘language’ lessons as the characters. This story seamlessly weaves two culturas while letting each remain intact, just as Miguel is learning to do with his own life. Like all good stories, this one incorporates a lesson just subtle enough that readers will forget they're being taught, but in the end will understand themselves, and others, a little better, regardless of la lengua nativa—the mother tongue. Simple, bella, un regalo permenente: simple and beautiful, a gift that will stay.”

Review in BOOKLIST: “Alvarez's first book for young readers sometimes reads like a docu-novel, but the warmth of the individual characters and the simple music of the narrative will appeal to middle-graders. So will the play with language. Tia Lola teaches Miguel and Juanita Spanish as she talks, so the English translation is right there in the text. They teach her English, which she practices on everyone in town with hilarious effect.”

Review in SCHOOL LIBRARY JOURNAL: “Readers will enjoy the funny situations, identify with the developing relationships and conflicting feelings of the characters, and will get a spicy taste of Caribbean culture in the bargain.”

Review in PUBLISHER’S WEEKLY: “As likable as Tia Lola is, some readers may have trouble believing her quick transformation. In addition, Miguel's long-distance father appears more involved in the boy's life than his own mother (with whom Miguel lives); the mother's character is never fully developed.”

5.      CONNECTIONS
*Tía Lola tells Miguel and Juanita about the legend of the ciguapas (p. 18-19). Read more about these creatures and compare them to other mythical creatures such as yetis, the Loch Ness monster, dragons, goblins, gargoyles, harpies, and krakens. Start with this picture book adaption of the ciguapa legend by Alvarez:
Alvarez, Julia. 2002. THE SECRET FOOTPRINTS. Ill. Fabin Negrin. ISBN 978-0440417477

*Tía Lola loves to tell Miguel and Juanita stories before bed, so read some of these adaptations of legends from the Dominican Republic:
Alvarez, Julia. 2005. A GIFT OF GRACIAS: THE LEGEND OF ALTAGRACIA. Ill. Beatriz Vidal. ISBN 978-0375824258
Alvarez, Julia. 2008. EL MEJOR REGALO DEL MUNDO: LA LEYENDA DE LA VIEJA BELEN / THE BEST GIFT OF ALL: THE LEGEND OF LA VIEJA BELEN. Ill. 978-1603963251

*Other chapter books that focus on Dominican Republic culture:
Joseph, Lynn. 2000. THE COLOR OF MY WORDS. ISBN 978-0060282325

*Non-Fiction books about the Dominican Republic:
Foley, Erin & Leslie Jermyn. 2005. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. ISBN 978-0761419662
Temple, Bob. 2010. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. ISBN 978-1422206249

*Other Tía Lola books:
Alvarez, Julia. 2010. HOW TIA LOLA LEARNED TO TEACH. ISBN 978-0375864605
Alvarez, Julia. 2011. HOW TIA LOLA ENDED UP STARTING OVER. ISBN 978-0375869143
Alvarez, Julia. 2011. HOW TIA LOLA SAVED THE SUMMER. ISBN 978-0375967276

*Other children’s books by Julia Alvarez:
Alvarez, Julia. 2010. RETURN TO SENDER. ISBN 978-0375851230

¡Yum! ¡Mmmm! ¡Qué Rico! by Pat Mora, Illustrated by Rafael López

Mora, Pat. 2007. ¡Yum! ¡Mmmm! ¡Qué Rico!: America's Sproutings Book Cover. Illustrated by Rafael López. Book cover designed by  Rafael López. From http://www.patmora.com/book_pages/yum.htm


1.      BIBLIOGRAPHY
Mora, Pat. 2007. ¡YUM! ¡MMMM! ¡QUÉ RICO!: AMERICA’S SPROUTINGS. Ill. Rafael López. New York: Lee & Low Books. ISBN 978-1584302711

2.      PLOT SUMMARY
This collection of fourteen haikus celebrates foods from North and South America, from peanuts to pineapples, corn to cranberries. The poems are supplemented by information on the origins of the food and the etymology of the name. Beautifully vibrant and textured illustrations tie the poems together.

3.      CRITICAL ANALYSIS
All of the poems in this collection evoke positive emotions and experiences. Mora deftly picks words that fit together like puzzle pieces. The result are tightly wrought haikus with a playfully musical feeling. The tone is celebratory and joyful. Mora’s haikus bring to life the texture, as well as the taste, smell, and sound of each food with descriptors like, “gooey,” “crunch,” and “syrupy.”

Each two-page spread features a single poem about one food and surrounded by the vibrantly colored illustrations. In addition to the haiku, Mora includes a sidebar with information about the origin of the food and its name(s), the region it is commonly grown/eaten in, and other information including good times to celebrate the food and the symbolism in different cultures.

This book focuses on the countries within the two American continents – North America and South America. A map is included at the beginning of the book and supplemental information on each page focuses on how the foods were grown, cooked, and named in these regions. Mora includes a short list of resources on the copyright page with an accompanying note explaining that linguists and botanists are still discovering new information about the etymologies and indigenous plant histories of the foods in the book.

López uses acrylic paint on wood panels to create highly layered whimsical illustrations. The illustrations are playfully fantastical. For instance, in many illustrations the children seem to be flying through the air as if they are too excited by the delectable foods to keep their feet on the ground. Thick brushstrokes of highly saturated colors combined with crisp edges create a textured world that compliments the sensory nature of Mora’s poems.

Cultural markers can be found in Mora’s choice of foods and in López’s illustrations, most notably the people. They feature children and adults of many races and skin colors, although the majority of the characters are dark-haired and brown skinned. This makes sense because the indigenous people of the Americas had these attributes.

Sharing food in a communal atmosphere is highlighted in the illustrations that show families and friends happily eating food together. In addition to presenting the final product (an vanilla ice cream cone, a slice of chocolate cake, a juicy red tomato), making of the illustrations show kids and adults planting, tending, and harvesting the plants that grow the foods. When sharing this book it maybe necessary to introduce some of the foods to children. Corn, vanilla ice cream, and chocolate are familiar to most kids, but cranberries, papayas, and prickly pear are not commonly found in most households.

Although the title seems to denote a bilingual book, there are only two Spanish terms in the poetry. Counting the Spanish in the title, “¡Qué rico!” and one word in the illustrators dedication there are only four Spanish terms, all of which are defined on the copyright page. I enjoyed the incorporation of Spanish terms into the book, but it would have nice if Mora had included words from other indigenous languages of the Americas.

4.      REVIEW EXCERPTS
ALA Notable Books for Children
Américas Award for Children’s and Young Adult Literature
A to Zoo, 7th edition

Starred review in BOOKLIST: “This inventive stew of food haiku celebrates the indigenous foods of the Americas. Each of the 13 poems appears on a gloriously colorful double-page spread, accompanied by a sidebar that presents information about the origin of the food. From blueberries to prickly pears to corn, the acrylic-on-wood-panel illustrations burst with vivid colors and stylized Mexican flair.”

Review in KIRKUST REVIEWS: “More interesting as social science than as poetry, but visually gorgeous.”

Review in SCHOOL LIBRARY JOURNAL: “The sense of whimsy is further underscored in López's colorful acrylic on wood-panel illustrations. Artful compositions and brilliant complementary colors bear out the book's multicultural themes.”

5.      CONNECTIONS
*Bring in some of the foods celebrated in these poems. First, read the poem. Second, eat the food. Finally, read the poem again. Ask kids if they had eaten that food before. If not, did they guess what the food would taste like from the poem?

*Read each poem like a riddle and see if kids can guess the name/topic of the poem.

*Other books of poetry by Pat Mora:
Mora, Pat. 1994. THE DESERT IS MY MOTHER: EL DESIERTO ES MI MADRE. Ill. Daniel Lechon. ISBN 978-1558851214
Mora, Pat. 1996. CONFETTI: POEMS FOR CHILDREN. Ill. Enrique O. Sanchez. ISBN 978-0606170727
Mora, Pat. 1998. DELICIOUS HULLABAOO/PACHANGA DELICIOSA. Ill. Francisco X. Mora. ISBN 978-1558852464
Mora, Pat. 1998. THIS BIG SKY. Ill. Steve Jenkins. ISBN 978-0590371209
Mora, Pat. 2008. JOIN HANDS! THE WAYS WE CELEBRATE LIFE. Photos George Ancona. ISBN 978-1580892025

*Other collections of food/eating themed poetry:
Ada, Alma Flor. 2001. GATHERING THE SUN: AN ALPHABET IN SPANISH AND ENGLISH. ISBN 978-0688170677
Alarcon, Francisco X. 2005. LAUGHING TOMATOES: AND OTHER SPRING POEMS/JITOMATES RISUEÑOS: Y OTROS POEMAS DE PRIMAVERA. Ill. Maya Christina Gonzalez. ISBN 978-0892391998
Argueta, Jorge. 2009. SOPA DE FRJOLES/BEAN SOUP. Ill. Rafael Yockteng. ISBN 978-0888998811
Argueta, Jorge. 2010. ARROZ CON LECHE/RICE PUDDING: UN POEMA PARA COCINAR/A COOKING POEM. Ill. Fernando Vilela. ISBN 978-0888999818
Morrison, Lillian. 2005. I SCREAM, YOU SCREAM: A FEAST OF FOOD RHYMES. Ill. Nancy Dunaway. ISBN 978-0874834956
Philip, Neil. 2004. HOT POTATO: MEALITME RHYMES. ISBN 978-0618315543

Neighborhood Odes by Gary Soto, Illustrated by David Diaz

Soto, Gary. 1992. Neighborhood Odes Book Cover. Illustrated by David Diaz. From http://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/neighborhood-odes-gary-soto/1003669718?ean=9781417705887


1.      BIBLIOGRAPHY
Soto, Gary. 1992. NEIGHBORHOOD ODES. Ill. David Diaz. San Diego: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich. ISBN 0152568794


2.      PLOT SUMMARY
In twenty one non-rhyming poems, Soto describes and celebrates the people, places, foods, and experiences of children growing up in a Mexican-American neighborhood. Soto incorporates Spanish terms into the poems, which are accompanied by ten dynamic black and white prints by David Diaz.

3.      CRITICAL ANALYSIS
Soto’s poems convey joy and respect for simple acts of living, from eating a salty, crunchy chicharonnes to flipping through an album of family photos, in short, non-rhyming lines that are presented in long columns.  The poems are playful and candid; Soto does not shy away from the messy aspects of childhood. Everyday events, people, and objects are celebrated, thereby elevating them from mundane to special.

A common thread of pride runs through the poems in this collection. The characters are proud of their siblings, parents, family, friends, pets, and the accomplishments of these people. This makes the ode format especially appropriate. Love in its many forms is present in nearly every poem, but it is not overly sentimental or sugary. Even Ode to La Llorona, which seems at first to be a poetic retelling of the Latino legend, turns out to be an ode to childhood.

The rhythm and meaning of these poems are best conveyed when read aloud. Soto deftly describes the colors, sights, sounds, and tastes of a Mexican-American neighborhood with words that roll, melt, tingle, and tumble on your tongue. The poems are circular, beginning with a narrow focus and expanding the perspective as the poem progresses until the elements intermingle and Soto brings us back to the original subject, usually with a humorous twist. Most of the poems are written in present tense, although a few feature flashbacks, such as Ode to Mi Perrito, or discuss past events, like Ode to Family Photographs.

The book features ten illustrations, each sitting to the left or right of its corresponding poem. The illustrations show slices of life and are clearly tied to specific poems. Such as the illustration of the García brothers sitting under the leafy pomegranate tree that accompanies Ode to Pomegranates. Using sharp lines and shapes Diaz skillfully contrasts black and white to create flat images that match the tone of each poem.  For instance, the illustration that accompanies Ode to the Sprinkler shows a young boy jumping with wild abandon through the rays of water, while the weeping woman of Ode to La Llorona is depicted in a long, flowing scarf scattering candy among swirling waves of water. 

The cultural markers in the text include several references to brown skin, use of mostly Latino names, and foods, as well as Spanish terms. The illustrations place an emphasis on the universality of the experiences, so the cultural markers are present mainly in the text. The people depicted in the black and white illustrations are “everypeople”; they could be of any race. One of the few illustrated cultural markers is the elaborate wedding cake that accompanies Ode to Weddings.

There are thirty-three Spanish words and phrases printed in italics in the poems and defined in a glossary at the end of the book. The terms are incorporated into the poems in a natural manner, as though the narrator of the poem is used to switching between languages. Some poems have only one or two terms, while others are more heavily peppered. If a reader is unfamiliar with a term it can be disruptive to have to flip to the glossary, it would have been more convenient if the terms were defined in footnotes or sidebars.

4.      REVIEW EXCERPTS
ALA Recommended Book for Reluctant Young Readers, 1993
Best Books for Children, 5th-7th editions
Books For Growing Minds, March 2005

Review in KIRKUS REVIEWS: “Diaz's occasional illustrations, with the sharp-edged black areas of woodcuts or paper silhouettes, are angular and stylized to near abstraction. Soto's language leans slightly toward the formal (as befits an ode) and is sprinkled with Spanish words, clear in context but also translated in a glossary.”

Starred review in HORN BOOK: “David Diaz's contemporary black-and-white illustrations, which often resemble cut paper, effortlessly capture the varied moods happiness, fear, longing, shame, and greed — of this remarkable collection.”

Review in SCHOOL LIBRARY JOURNAL: “Although Soto is dealing with a Chicano neighborhood, the poetry has a universal appeal. A minor drawback is that the Spanish words are not translated on the page, but in a glossary; to consult it interrupts the reading. Still, children will surely recognize the joy, love, fear, excitement, and adventure Soto brings to life…Black-and-white illustrations blend well with the astute verbal imagery. Each selection is an expression of joy and wonder at life's daily pleasures and mysteries.”

Review in PUBLISHER’S WEEKLY: “The tight clumps of language reproduce the quality of rapid and playful conversation. Affectionate without being overly sentimental, the collection provides a good introduction to contemporary poetry as well as a fine homage to a Chicano community. Diaz's woodcuts complement the poems perfectly: the silhouettes are fanciful and dynamic but do not draw attention from the words on the page.”

5.      CONNECTIONS
*Bring in pomegranates, tortillas, and chicharrones for children to eat before or after reading Ode to Pomegranates, Ode to La Tortilla, and Ode to Los Chicharrones out loud. Ask kids to write an ode to their favorite food.

*Ask children to bring in a few family photographs and read Ode to Family Photographs. Ask them to write a poem about their photographs. What would you want to tell someone who doesn’t know the person in the photograph?

*Read an adaption of the scary legend of La Llorona – The Weeping Woman before reading Soto’s Ode to La Llorona. Try one of these illustrated picture book versions:
Anaya, Rudolfo A. 2011. LA LLORONA – THE CRYING WOMAN. Ill. Amy Córdova. Trans. Enrique R. Lamadrid. ISBN 978-0826344601
Anzaldua, Gloria. 2001. PRIETITA AND THE GHOST WOMAN/PRIETITA Y LA LLORONA. Ill. Maya Christina Gonzalez. ISBN 978-0892391677
Hayes, Joe. 2004. LA LLORONA – THE WEEPING WOMAN: A HISPANIC LEGEND TOLD IN SPANISH AND ENGLISH. Ill. Mona Pennypacker & Vicki Trego-Hill. ISBN 978-0938317869

*Other books of poetry by Gary Soto:
Soto, Gary. 2002. FEARLESS FERNIE: HANGING OUT WITH FERNIE & ME. Ill. Regan Dunnick. ISBN 978-0399236150
Soto, Gary. 2006. A FIRE IN MY HANDS: A BOOK OF POEMS. ISBN 0152055649
Soto, Gary. 2007. CANTO FAMILIAR. Ill. Annika Nelson. ISBN 978-0152058852
Soto, Gary. 2012. PARTLY CLOUD: POEMS OF LOVE AND LONGING. ISBN 978-0547577371

Thursday, October 4, 2012

Feathers by Jacqueline Woodson

Woodson, Jacquline. 2007. Feathers Book Cover. Book cover designed by Linda McCarthy. From http://covers.openlibrary.org/w/id/260075-M.jpg



1.      BIBLIOGRAPHY
Woodson, Jacqueline. 2007. FEATHERS. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. ISBN 9780399239892

2.      PLOT SUMMARY
Sixth grade is a year of introspection, observation, and ultimately faith and understanding for 12 year old Frannie. When Frannie first hears Emily Dickinson’s poem about hope being “the thing with feathers,” she’s not quite sure what to think. Unfortunately, this is not the only uncertain thing in Frannie’s life. A new boy has arrived in her classroom and is almost instantly nicknamed “Jesus Boy.” Frannie can’t figure out Jesus Boy, white kids don’t go to Frannie’s all-African-American school. White kids stay on the other side of the tracks. To complicate matters, her mother is pregnant again and the whole family is worried that she will miscarriage or, worse, that this baby, like one born years ago, will not survive very long. These events are the catalysts that propel Frannie, bilingual in English and signed American Sign Language, to examine the world around her by observing her devotedly religious best friend, her deaf older brother Sean, as well as the Jesus Boy and her other classmates.

3.      CRITICAL ANALYSIS
Set in 1971, the time period is brought to life through the slang Frannie and her classmates use and the pop culture references throughout the book. For instance, Frannie loves Michael Jackson, then a young member of the Jackson Five. These references aren’t gratuitous, they are a natural part of Frannie’s observations. Woodson does not present a sugarcoated version of the racial and socioeconomic tensions of 1971. Although Frannie mentions events in the larger world that belay these issues, it is in the classroom and in the schoolyard that these issues are driven home for Frannie and her classmates.

The book is divided into four parts and written in short, episodic chapters. Although the pacing of the book is on the slower side, the short chapters keep the momentum moving forward. Woodson’s text is filled with symbolism and subtext. In addition to the many references to hope, light, snow, and feathers, sound and music play a major role in Frannie’s world. This is further emphasized by her relationship with her deaf older brother, Sean. American Sign Language is an integral part of Frannie’s life and she often finds herself signing without thinking. Signed dialogue is denoted by italics.

The characters in the book portray a wide range of religious ideas, most easily seen in Frannie’s mother, Samantha and the Jesus Boy. Frannie observes her mother, who has learned to live with the pain of losing a child, but who still finds hope in the world. Unlike her mother and her friend, preacher’s kid Samantha, Frannie struggles to understand and reconcile religion with the pain, suffering, and injustice she has seen and experienced. “A part of me stood there promising myself that from now on, I’d go to church more and listen to my grandma when she started preaching. But another part of me knew that the part of myself that was making those promises was lying” (p. 37-38). Jesus boy starts out as a mysterious, enigmatic, character, but by the end of the book Frannie realizes he’s just a boy. He’s human like everyone else.

Frannie herself is a compelling character. Frannie’s voice is intellectually mature in it’s reasoning, but she is childlike in her behavior. Frannie wants to be like the big kids, the “jive talkers,” but she still wants to be the baby of the family, to sit on her Mama’s lap and be cuddled.
She observes the little things that make a scene come to life. The way the light falls on her mother or how Sean signs his words.

Although this book is firmly grounded in Frannie’s world of 1971, many of the major themes, hope, faith, and religion, are universal. Kids will also be able to identify with specific situations, like being the new kid or being bullied for being different.

4.      REVIEW EXCERPTS
ALA Notable Book
Newbery Honor Book

Review in SCHOOL LIBRARY JOURNAL: “With her usual talent for creating characters who confront, reflect, and grow into their own persons, Woodson creates in Frannie a strong protagonist who thinks for herself and recognizes the value and meaning of family. The story ends with hope and thoughtfulness while speaking to those adolescents who struggle with race, faith, and prejudice. They will appreciate its wisdom and positive connections.”

Review in KIRKUS REVIEWS: “The theme of “hope” recurs in the description of the Black Power movement, and in Frannie’s musings on the Emily Dickinson poem, “Hope is the thing with feathers.” Developing this metaphor, Woodson captures perfectly the questions and yearnings of a girl perched on the edge of adolescence, a girl who readers will take into their hearts and be glad to call their friend.”

Starred review in PUBLISHER’S WEEKLY: “Set in 1971, Woodson's novel skillfully weaves in the music and events surrounding the rising opposition to the Vietnam War, giving this gentle, timeless story depth. She raises important questions about God, racial segregation and issues surrounding the hearing-impaired with a light and thoughtful touch.”


5.      CONNECTIONS
*Several songs of the late 1960’s and early 1970’s are mentioned in the book. Play one or more of these songs and talk about what the lyrics might mean to the characters in the book.

Page 69: The Jackson 5. 1970. ABC. Music & lyrics by The Corporation: Berry Gordy, Jr., Freddie Perren, Alphonzo Mizell, & Deke Richards. 1970.
Page 100: The 5th Dimenson. 1969. AQUARIOUS/LET THE SUNSHINE IN. From the musical HAIR. Music by Galt MacDermot. Lyrics by James Rado & Gerome Ragni. 1967.
Page 117: Simon, Paul & Garfunkel, Art. 1970. A BRIDGE OVER TROUBLED WATER. Music & lyrics by Paul Simon. 1970

*Have the kids complete the writing exercise assigned by Frannie’s teacher, Ms. Johnson, (page 105). She asks the students to write down the things they have in common with one another.

*Other middle grade books by Jacqueline Woodson:
Woodson, Jacqueline. 1990. LAST SUMMER WITH MAIZON. ISBN 978-0385300452
Woodson, Jacqueline. 1992. MAIZON AT BLUE HILL. ISBN 978-0606059183
Woodson, Jacqueline. 2009. LOCOMOTION. ISBN 978-0784826294
Woodson, Jacqueline. 2010. PEACE, LOCOMOTION. ISBN 978-0606145961

*Other books about African-American children in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s.
Magoon, Kekla. 2009. THE ROCK AND THE RIVER. ISBN 978-1416975823
Williams-Garcia, Rita. 2010. ONE CRAZY SUMMER. ISBN 978-0060760892

*Other chapter books that discuss religion and faith:
L’engle, Madeleine. 1981. A RING OF ENDLESS LIGHT. ISBN978-0-374-36299-7
Speare, Elizabeth George.  1961. THE BRONZE BOW. ISBN 978-039507113-7

*Read a variety of poems that deal with the subject of hope. Encourage children to write their own poems about hope. Have a “Hopeful Poetry Reading.” Try using some of the following poems:
Auden, W. H. “Postscript from the Cave of Nakedness.” In Give Me Wings, edited by Lee Bennett Hopkins. Illustrated by Ponder Goembel. New York: Holiday House, 2010. ISBN 978-0823420230
Dotlich, Rebecca Kai. “Wake Up Wings!” In Give Me Wings, edited by Lee Bennett Hopkins. Illustrated by Ponder Goembel. New York: Holiday House, 2010. ISBN 978-0823420230
Silvestein, Shel. “Invitation.” In Where the Sidewalk Ends. New York: Harper Collins. 1974. ISBN 978-0060572341

Mirandy and Brother Wind by Patricia McKissack, Illustrated by Jerry Pinkney

McKissack, Patricia. 1988. Mirandy and Brother Wind Book Cover. Illustrated by Jerry Pinkney. From http://covers.openlibrary.org/w/id/4655172-M.jpg




1.      BIBLIOGRAPHY
McKissack, Patricia C. 1988. MIRANDY AND BROTHER WIND. Ill. Jerry Pinkney. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 034887654

2.      PLOT SUMMARY
It’s spring and Mirandy is getting ready for the junior cakewalk jubilee tomorrow. Mirandy decides that if she Brother Wind was her partner, she’d be sure to win. Her mother tells her an old saying, “Whoever catches the Wind can make him do their bidding.” So Mirandy sets out to capture wily Brother Wind. Her best friend, Ezel, tells her she’ll never catch Brother Wind, but Mirandy is determined. She gets advice from many people in her community, but no matter what Mirandy tries Brother Wind is too quick and clever for her. Will Mirandy catch Brother Wind or will she dance the cakewalk with Ezel?  

3.      CRITICAL ANALYSIS
The book not only presents a fanciful tale, but also highlights themes of friendship and determination. Throughout the book it is clear that Mirandy is sweet on Ezel, but she just won’t admit it. She’s also a stubborn, determined girl and once she’s announced that she’s going to dance with Brother Wind she won’t back down. This builds up the suspense; if Mirandy dances with Brother Wind, who will Ezel dance with? Ultimately, Mirandy figures out she does not have to choose between Ezel and Brother Wind and she ends up dancing with both of them.

The story builds anticipating slowly, each failed attempt adding fuel to the fire slowly but surely. The plot follows the rule of threes: Mirandy tries three times to catch Brother Wind before she manages to capture him in the hen house. Between each of Mirandy’s efforts McKissack has inserted interactions for Ezel and Mirandy. These conversations not only show the relationship between the characters, but also build interest and excitement for the outcome of the story.

The setting, the rural South in the early 1900’s, is an important element of the story. The time and place is established by the historical detail of the illustrations, as well as the black dialect used in the dialogue and description, “Talk had it that Mis Poinsetta wasn’t a for-real conjure woman like the ones in New Orleans. But didn’t nobody mess with her, just in case talk was wrong.” The pencil and watercolor illustrations present a realistic environment, a kitchen full of historically accurate furniture and canning jars, a farmyard with a water pump and piles of firewood, the spectacular cakes and delicate punchbowl at the cakewalk jubilee.

The textual descriptions firmly root the story in historical African-American rural culture; this is especially evident in Mirandy’s interactions with the diverse members of the community. For instance, Mirandy gets advice from Mr. Jessup at the corner store and Mis Poinsettia, the local conjure woman. The text helps to transport the reader into the past and because it is written in black dialect it creates an intimate experience, as though someone is telling the story for you while sitting in a kitchen or by the fire.

The backgrounds of the illustrations feature the dusty browns and lush greens of the country. The richly detailed and expressive illustrations feature realistic people and settings, except for Brother Wind. His presence elevates this story from being a slice-of-life story to a fantastical tale. All of the characters in the story are depicted as African-Americans, even Brother Wind. Although he is a magical character, rendered in see-through blue, it is clear that he is African-American as well.

Author’s note at the beginning of the book describes the photograph that inspired McKissack to write this book. She also includes a brief explanation of the cakewalk tradition and what a cakewalk dance looks like, which would be useful to read to audiences before reading the book out loud. It would have provided a richer context, however, if the photograph of her grandparents had been included.

The only major weakness in my opinion is the representation of the cakewalk jubilee. I would have liked to see would have been more compelling, movement-oriented illustrations of the cakewalk jubilee. After such a build up, it was disappoint to see only two, rather stiff, illustrations at the end of the book.

4.      AWARDS/REVIEW EXCERPTS
Caldecott Honor Book
Coretta Scott King Award Winner
Best Books For Children, 6th Edition

Review in PUBLISHER’S WEEKLY: “Told in spirited dialect and rendered in lavish, sweeping watercolors, this provides an intriguing look at a time gone by…After the colorful description of cakewalking in the author's note and the anticipation created through Mirandy's own eagerness, the brief and rather static scenes portraying the dance itself are a letdown.”

Review in BOOKLIST: “Warm colors and homey scenes enhance the story's strong sense of a turn-of-the-century rural black community. Inspired by a family story, McKissack's tale is both fanciful and grounded in affectionate remembrance.”

Review in SCHOOL LIBRARY JOURNAL: “Sultry watercolor washes in a realistic flowing style spread luxuriously and consistently over every two pages in this story set in the rural south…A captivating story, with a winning heroine, told in black dialect.”

5.      CONNECTIONS
*Have the kids dance the cakewalk like Mirandy and Ezel do in the book. You could even give a decorated cake to the winning couples as was traditionally done or give cakes to couples based on the squares they finish on. The cakewalk was usually danced to music in 2/4 time.

*Show this short video of historical clips of cakewalk dancing:
Teten, Carol (Director). 2003. “Cakewalk Dance Clips.” from America Dances! 1897-1948: A Collectors Edition of Social Dance in Film. Dancetime Publications. Accessed on October 2, 2012: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7sDnVIeSn_k

*Although the cakewalk began as a dance, the term is now used as a noun to describe something that is very easy to do. Discuss the second meaning of the term. Do you think it was a cakewalk for Mirandy to win the cakewalk? Explain your reasoning.

*Other books written by Patricia C. McKissack and illustrated by Jerry Pinkney:
McKissack, Patricia C. 2001. GOIN’ SOMEPLACE SPECIAL. Ill. Jerry Pinkney. ISBN 978-0-689-81885-1
McKissack, Patricia C. 2007. THE ALL-I’LL-EVER-WANT CHRISTMAS DOLL. Ill. Jerry Pinkney. ISBN 978-0375837593

*Other books featuring African-American characters and fantastical characters/plots:
Lyons, Mary E. 2005. ROY MAKES A CAR. Ill. Terry Widener. ISBN 978-0689846403
Nolen, Jerdine. 2007. THUNDER ROSE. Ill. Kadir Nelson. ISBN 978-0152060060
San Souci, Robert D. 1989. THE TALKING EGGS. Ill. Jerry Pinkney. ISBN 978-0803706194
San Souci, Robert D. 1996. SUKEY AND THE MERMAID. Ill. Brian Pinkney. ISBN 978-0689807183

Black Cowboy Wild Horses: A True Story by Julius Lester, Illustrated by Jerry Pinkney

Lester, Julius. 1998. Black Cowboy Wild Horses: A True Story Book Cover. Illustrated by Jerry Pinkney. Fromhttp://covers.openlibrary.org/w/id/575209-M.jpg



1.      BIBLIOGRAPHY
Lester, Julius. 1998. BLACK COWBOY WILD HORSES: A TRUE STORY. Ill. Jerry Pinkney. New York: Dial Books. ISBN 0803717873

2.      PLOT SUMMARY
This book is a fictionalized account of the real life black cowboy, Bob Lemmons, who had a legendary gift for herding wild horses on the plains of the West. The story follows Lemmons as he and his spirited horse, Warrior, depart from the corral out onto the plains. As the days pass, Lemmons endures storms and freezing temperatures as he tracks, observes, challenges, and finally takes charge of a herd of wild mustangs.

3.      CRITICAL ANALYSIS
 Like Lemmons life, this story is grounded in respect and love for the natural world. Weather and natural elements are a major part of the story and affect Lemmons’ journey as he tracks the herd. The setting of the plains of the West is very important, both in the text and illustrations. Nature is a major presence in the story; The flora and fauna of the plains are incorporated into every page.

The first half of the book holds the reader in suspense as Lemmons bides his time observing and acclimating to the herd. The pacing is slow, but steady. The second part of the book begins when Lemmons and Warrior walk into the herd, then the book races to the finish line as Lemmons takes control of the herd and leads them back to the corral.

The text is written in the third person present tense. This allows Lester to provide background information about Lemmons, such as the fact that he was once a slave and that he never learned to read or write. Lemmons is a calm, patient, and disciplined man. He is confident, but not overly proud of his abilities. Lester and Pinkney have created a compassionate, but strong hero of the Wild West. Lemmons is a man who understands the importance of the laws of nature. He understands that he must become a part of the plains for the horses to accept him. When one of the mustang colts is trampled by the herd, Lemmons also shows that he respects the natural order of the plains. 

Lemmons is clearly the center of the story; however the main transformation is seen in the way he is viewed by the mustangs. Although Lemmons achieves his goal by the end of the book, he does not experience a major change. Yes, he undergoes a physical change in order to become accepted by the herd, but it seems like this is something Lemmons has done many times before.

The text is almost entirely descriptive, with only two lines of dialogue in the entire story. The imagery and figurative in the text is beautiful and evokes the plains by describing the sights, sounds, and atmosphere utilizing nature elements. For example, “High above, a hawk was suspended on cold threads of unseen winds”, “The rain came hard and stinging as remorse.”

Matching the tone of the text, the illustrations realistically depict the vast, endless landscape of the plains. Cinematic angles are used to bring the story to life. Pinkney’s illustrations are full of movement, most of which travels left to right propelling the reader to turn the page in anticipation of coming events. The horses are anatomically correct, you can almost see their muscles rippling and hear them snorting and stamping their feet. The most impressive illustrations are those that simultaneously feature real life mustangs running across the plains and the ghostly outlines of horses running through the voluminous clouds of the endless sky.

The illustrations accurately depict Lemmons as an African-American man with dark curly hair and dark sun-baked skin, however, besides the title, the text only references his race once in passing, “Bob had been a slave and never learned to read.” The accurate depiction of Lemmons’ race is important; however the real focus of the book is on the culture of the West and on Lemmons’ unique abilities.

Although the text does not touch on the cultural implications of the story, the author’s and illustrator’s notes at the back of the book provide context by noting that Bob Lemmons was not the only African-American cowboy. In fact, Pinkney writes that, “one out of every three cowboys was black or Mexican.”

4.      REVIEW EXCERPTS
International Reading Association - Teacher's Choices, 1999
Bulletin of the Center For Children's Books-Recommended Titles, 1996
NCSS - Notable Social Studies Trade Books for Young People 1999

Review in BOOKLIST: “Pinkney's earth-colored gouache and watercolor paintings add the look of the Texas plains to Lester's account and capture the energy of the horses as they gallop across sweeping, double-page spreads. Lester and Pinkney's manifest love and respect for the West and cowboys of color, whose contributions have been too long overlooked, distinguish their latest collaboration.”

Review in HORN BOOK MAGAZINE: “Notes from the two creators give a history of the book and reveal their shared fascination with black cowboys. This latest collaboration evokes the legendary stature of one of these real men, as well as the majesty and romance of the Wild West.”

Review from KIRKUS REVIEWS: “The text is ably matched by Pinkney’s big, dappled watercolor scenes of open prairie and muscular, galloping horses. Lemmons may not have the name recognition of Nat Love or Bill Pickett, but his exploits were no less spectacular.”

Review in PUBLISHER’S WEEKLY: “Lester studs his seamless prose with powerful descriptions, such as when a hawk is "suspended on cold threads of unseen winds," or the mustangs sweep toward the corral as "a dark surge of flesh flashing across the plains like black lightning." The fluid brushwork of Pinkney's watercolors seem tailor-made for the flow of muscle, mane and tail of wild mustangs galloping across the prairie. Notable for the light it sheds on a fascinating slice of Americana, this book is essential for anyone interested in the Wild West.”

Review in SCHOOL LIBRARY JOURNAL: “Throughout, both text and pictures emphasize the blending of all life. The linkages between the cowboy, the animals, and the natural world are so strong that lines separating them are blurred. Lester and Pinkney's stated aims were to recast their childhood love of cowboys and the Old West with more recent historical research into the contributions of men of color, both black and Hispanic.”

5.      CONNECTIONS
*Pair this book with poems about cowboys. Try poems from the following collections:
Harrison, David L. 2012. COWBOYS: VOICES IN THE WESTERN WILD. ISBN 978-1590788776
Janeczko, Paul B. ed. 1997. HOME ON THE RANGE: COWBOY POETRY. Ill. Bernie Fuchs. ISBN 978-0803719101
Ode, Ben. 2007. TALL TALES OF THE WILD WEST: A HUMOROUS COLLECTION OF COWBOY POEMS AND SONGS. Ill. Ben Crane. ISBN 978-1416936770

*Other children’s books about black cowboys:
Miller, Robert H. 1994. THE STORY OF NAT LOVE. Ill. Michael Bryant. ISBN 978-082243981
Pinkney, Andrea Davis. 1999. BILL PICKETT: RODEO-RIDIN’ COWBOY. ISBN 978-0152021030

*Non-fiction children’s books about African-American cowboys and settlers in the Wild West:
Katcher, Ruth. 1999. MY HEROES, MY PEOPLE: AFRICAN-AMERICANS AND NATIVE AMERICANS IN THE WEST. Ill. Morgan Monceaux. ISBN 978-0374307707
Schlissel, Lillian. 2000. BLACK FRONTIERS: A HISTORY OF AFRICAN AMERICAN HEROES OF THE OLD WEST. ISBN 978-0689833151

*Other cowboy picture books for children:
Brett, Jan. 1995. ARMADILLO RODEO. ISBN 978-0399228032
Danneberg, Julie. 2006. COWBOY SLIM. Ill. Margo Apple. ISBN 978-1580890458
Frank, John. 2004. THE TOUGHEST COWBOY: OR HOW THE WILD WEST WAS TAMED. Ill. Zachary Pullen. ISBN 978-0689834615
Gibbons, Gail. 1998. YIPPEE-YAY! – A BOOK ABOUT COWBOYS AND COWGIRLS. ISBN 978-0316309448
Langdo, Bryan. 2011. TORNADO SLIM AND THE MAGIC COWBOY HAT. ISBN 978-0761459620
Timberlake, Amy.2003. THE DIRTY COWBOY. Ill. Adam Rex. ISBN 0374317917
Whitney, Gleves & Whitney, Louise Doak. 2006. B IS FOR BUCKAROO. Ill. Susan Guy. ISBN 978-1585363360

*Other children’s picture books written by Julius Lester and illustrated by Jerry Pinkney:
Lester, Julius. 1987. THE TALES OF UNCLE REMUS: THE ADVENTURES OF UNCLE REMUS. Ill. Jerry Pinkney. ISBN 978-0803702714
Lester, Julius. 1990. THE FURTHER TALES OF UNCLE REMUS: THE MISADVENTURES OF BRER RABBIT, BRER FOX, BRER WOLF, THE DOODANG, AND OTHER CREATURES. Ill. Jerry Pinkney. ISBN 978-0803706101
Lester, Julius. 1994. JOHN HENRY. Ill. Jerry Pinkney. ISBN 978-0803716063
Lester, Julius. 1996. SAM AND THE TIGERS: A RETELLING OF ‘LITTLE BLACK SAMBO.’ Ill. Jerry Pinkney. ISBN 978-0803720282
Lester, Julius. 2005. THE OLD AFRICAN. Ill. Jerry Pinkney. ISBN 978-0803725645